The next two sections will review indicators and means of verification. Strong indicators will provide quantitative and qualitative measurements on the project’s process and impact. Means of verification refers to how you will find the data that corresponds to the indicator.

LogFrame indicators

What are indicators?

Indicators are qualitative or quantitative measurements of types and processes of change. In PVE projects where change is complex, and involves attitudes, behaviors and relationships, it is important to set and track qualitative change. 

Why use them?

Indicators are useful to tell us what type of data to collect, and will give us information on when, how and with what methods this data should be collected. However, only when the data is analyzed will we understand the change that has occurred. Proper analysis implies triangulating data, that is cross-verifying data from at least two other sources and applying a combination of methods, such as testing a quantitative trend with data collected through focus group discussions and key informant reviews. 

*Definitions above from UNDP/International Alert


Quantitative versus Qualitative Indicators


Quantitative vs Qualitative graphic


This resource from the United States Institute of Peace identifies a few key areas that P/CVE projects should measure changes in: attitudes, behaviors, and relationships.


Can measure:

  • Changes in social, political, and ideological beliefs held by individuals targeted by an intervention, including their attitudes toward the use of violence and their ideological leanings.

Commonly assessed by:

  • Measuring an individual's knowledge of VE, as well as his or her perception of it.


  • This metric is based on the underlying assumption about the relationship between extremist beliefs and violent activity Not all who hold radical beliefs will engage in, or even support, violence.
Behaviors and Activities

Can measure:

  • Changes in individual engagement with VE groups and activities (including consumption of VE propaganda and online participation).
  • Changes in participation in nonviolence acts or engagement with activities designed to promote tolerance or peace or to counter extremism. 

Commonly assessed by:

  • A variety of surveys, interviews, case studies, and anecdotal evidence, as well as by collecting data on incidents of violence.
Relationships and Social Networks

Can measure:

  • Individual relationships and ties to members outside and inside of an individual's community or to VEOs.
  • Levels of cohesion, integration, and engagement of individuals on a communal level.

Commonly assessed by:

  • Individual relationships and social ties, often through online P/CVE interventions or using social media accounts and followers to trace group dynamics and connections.


  • A potential ethical problem arises when tracking individual social connections through intrusive research methods.

This resource from the United States Institute of Peace identifies a few key areas that P/CVE projects should measure changes in: attitudes, behaviors, and relationships.

Types of Indicators

There are two main types of indicators: context monitoring indicators which help measure key changes in the project environment (including things which may be out of your control); and performance monitoring indicators which help measure progress toward achievement of the intended outputs and/or outcomes of the project. Below are examples of both types of indicators:

Context Monitoring Indicators

Monitor key changes in the context in which a project is operating. These changes could relate to PVE dynamics which could impact the project’s performance or represent new opportunities.


  • Number of incidents of violence between community A and community B
Performance Monitoring Indicators 

Measure a project’s performance against stated aims and targets at the output, outcome and ultimately at the impact level.


  • Number of self-generated activities with CVE-relevant objectives in at-risk communities, neighborhoods, schools, etc.
  • Percentage of target group that believes that VE groups play an important role in delivering needed economic or other social goods and services to the community.

*Most of the indicators examples above are from the CT Bureau. For additional examples of indicators, see this Indicator Bank from International Alert/UNDP, and CVE Illustrative Indicators Exemplar from the CT Bureau.

Prevention Institute’s Indicator Worksheet